Naming and describing the diversity in the Usnea cornuta aggregate (lichenized Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) focusing on Brazilian specimens
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Conservatoire et jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, 1 ch. de l’Impératrice, 1292 Chambésy/GE, Switzerland
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, Laboratório de Micologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Campus do Vale, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil
Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingeniería, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, 11501, Costa Rica
Online publication date: 2020-12-29
Publication date: 2020-12-29
Plant and Fungal Systematics 2020; 65(2): 272–302
This study is a reassessment of the Usnea cornuta aggregate diversity mainly in Brazil. Based on previous multi-locus species delimitation analyses using the multispecies coalescent model (MSC), we carried out a posteriori morphological and anatomical studies. The following corticolous new species are described: Usnea arianae with norstictic or fatty or lobaric acids, convex and efflorescent soralia and a lax medulla; U. flabelliformis with protocetraric acid, fan-shaped main branches and a high medulla/cortex ratio; U. rubropallens with protocetraric acid and a faint orange cortical/subcortical pigment; U. stipitata with constictic acid, stipitate soralia and a high medulla/cortex ratio; and U. tenuicorticata with protocetraric acid, a thin cortex and a high medulla/cortex ratio. The newly described species were found to occur so far only in the Americas, except U. arianae which shows an amphi-atlantic distribution in Europe and on the American continent. Seven species already described belonging to the U. cornuta aggr. in Brazil are further treated here: Usnea boomiana with caperatic acid and large, concave soralia, new to South America; U. brasiliensis with protocetraric acid, minute and irregular soralia; U. cornuta with mainly salazinic acid and minute soralia fusing into consoralia; U. macaronesica (syn. nov.: U. subglabrata) with barbatic acid, large excavate soralia and a lax medulla; Usnea subpectinata, a so far european species resurrected from the U. cornuta synonymy, with stictic acid and numerous isidiofibrils, new to South America; and U. trachyclada with thamnolic acid and K+ bright yellow stipitate soralia. Full descriptions with morphological, anatomical and chemical features, geographical distributions, and illustrations are provided for each species along with an identification key.
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