This study is a reassessment of the Usnea cornuta aggregate diversity mainly in Brazil. Based on previous multi-locus species delimitation analyses using the multispecies coalescent model (MSC), we carried out a posteriori morphological and anatomical studies. The following corticolous new species are described: Usnea arianae with norstictic or fatty or lobaric acids, convex and efflorescent soralia and a lax medulla; U. flabelliformis with protocetraric acid, fan-shaped main branches and a high medulla/cortex ratio; U. rubropallens with protocetraric acid and a faint orange cortical/subcortical pigment; U. stipitata with constictic acid, stipitate soralia and a high medulla/cortex ratio; and U. tenuicorticata with protocetraric acid, a thin cortex and a high medulla/cortex ratio. The newly described species were found to occur so far only in the Americas, except U. arianae which shows an amphi-atlantic distribution in Europe and on the American continent. Seven species already described belonging to the U. cornuta aggr. in Brazil are further treated here: Usnea boomiana with caperatic acid and large, concave soralia, new to South America; U. brasiliensis with protocetraric acid, minute and irregular soralia; U. cornuta with mainly salazinic acid and minute soralia fusing into consoralia; U. macaronesica (syn. nov.: U. subglabrata) with barbatic acid, large excavate soralia and a lax medulla; Usnea subpectinata, a so far european species resurrected from the U. cornuta synonymy, with stictic acid and numerous isidiofibrils, new to South America; and U. trachyclada with thamnolic acid and K+ bright yellow stipitate soralia. Full descriptions with morphological, anatomical and chemical features, geographical distributions, and illustrations are provided for each species along with an identification key.
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