Type material of twelve species of Usnea related to Asia and South Africa were studied and one species from North America is newly described. Holotype specimens of eight Chinese taxa described in 1975 were synonymized as follows: U. mengyangensis is lectotypified and synonymized with U. aciculifera. Usnea recurvata and U. subrectangulata are synonymized with U. baileyi. Usnea kirinensis is synonymized with U. barbata s.str. Usnea crassiuscula and U. yunnanensis (= U. australis J.D. Zhao et al., nom. illeg. non Fr.) are synonymized with U. bismolliuscula. Usnea iteratocarpa is synonymized with U. cristatula (new to Asia, China). Usnea decumbens is synonymized with U. intumescens (new to Asia, China). Usnea entoviolata and U. roseola are synonymized with U. fragilis (new to Asia, China, India, Japan). The lectotype of Usnea trichoideoides was found to belong to the Usnea pectinata aggr. and consequently U. montis-fuji was resurrected for U. trichodeoides sensu Ohmura. Usnea ceratina and U. trichodeoides are excluded from the Japan lichen flora. Usnea macaronesica a recently described Macaronesian and South American species is synonymized with the Asian taxa U. pycnoclada. Usnea chicitae is described as a new species endemic of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. It is characterized by stipitate efflorescent soralia, a tenuicorticata-type of CMA and the presence of salazinic and psoromic acid in the medulla.
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