Within the lichen family Teloschistaceae, a high number of genera are restricted to the extreme southern part of the Southern Hemisphere. The taxonomy and phylogeny of the southern genus Gondwania have been analyzed based upon fieldwork in Antarctica, Patagonia, New Zealand and Tasmania and subsequent studies including molecular methods. Five species are accepted in the genus Gondwanea including G. inclinans and G. joannae that are combined into the genus. Two species are included in the neighboring new genus Transdrakea, T. alacalufes, a saxicolous species from Patagonia, which is described as new to science and T. schofieldii. Based on molecular data, Austroplaca imperialis is described as a new species to accommodate Patagonian specimens previously named G. regalis. Even though morphologically very similar, the two species are distinct based on molecular and chemical characters and distribution. Gondwania and Transdrakea are chemically homogenous with parietin as the very dominant compound; Transdrakea has a very reduced thallus, whereas Gondwania includes species with crustose thalli, as well as species with fruticulose growth habits. G. inclinans and G. cribrosa are only known from Australia/New Zealand. G. regalis, G. joannae and T. schofieldii are only known from Antarctica. G. sublobulata is confirmed from Patagonia and the Falkland Islands, but Antarctic specimens previously named G. sublobulata belong to G. joannae. G. sejongensis is shown to be a synonym to G. joannae. A key to Gondwania and Transdrakea species is presented.
Field work was supported by the Spanish grant CTM2015-64728-C2-1-R (MINECO/FEDER, UE) and the Carlsberg Foundation (2008_01_0645).
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