The fruticose lichen genus Gowardia (Parmeliaceae) was recently segregated from Alectoria based on phylogeny, morphology, secondary chemistry, ecology and distribution. As currently circumscribed, Gowardia comprises two wide-ranging species of arctic-alpine regions. Here we describe a third species, G. zebrina sp. nov., apparently endemic to subalpine regions in mountainous northwestern North America. Gowardia zebrina differs from other species in the genus by its combined subpendent habit, uniformly capillary branches, predominantly isotomic branching, pale-and-dark banding of the terminal branches, and epiphytic ecology. Morphological examination of North American herbarium specimens filed under A. nigricans suggests the existence of several additional undescribed species of Gowardia. A brief overview of morphological diversity in these species is given, shedding new light on the question of whether Gowardia should be subsumed under Alectoria, as some have suggested, or is more appropriately recognized as a distinct genus.
Brodo, I. M. & Hawksworth, D. H. 1977. Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42: 1–164.
Crespo, A., Divakar, P. K., Leavitt, S. D. & Lumbsch, H. T. 2016. A synopsis of the generic classification of Parmeliaceae in Mexico in the light of molecular data. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 110: 55–67.
Divakar, P. K., Crespo, A., Wedin, M., Leavitt, S., Myllys, L., McCune, B., Randlane, T., Bjerke, J., Ohmura, Y., Schmitt, I., Boluda, C., Alors, D., Valiente, B. R., Del-Prado, R., Ruibal, C., Buaruang, K., Núñez-Zapata, J., Amo de Paz, G., Rico, V., Molina, M. C., Elix, J., Esslinger, T., Tronstad, I. K., Lindgren, H., Ertz, D., Gueidan, C., Saag, L., Tõrra, T., Singh, G., Dal Grande, F., Parnmen, S., Beck, A., Benatti, M., Blanchon, D., Candan, M., Clerc, P., Goward, T., Grube, M., Hodkinson, B., Hur, J. S., Kantvilas, G., Kirika, P., Lendemer, J., Mattsson, J. E., Messuti, M. I., Miadlikowska, J., Nelsen, M., Ohlson, J., Pérez-Ortega, S., Saag, A., Sipman, H., Sohrabi, M., Thell, A., Thor, G., Truong, C., Yahr, R., Upreti, D., Hawksworth, D., Cubas, P. & Lumbsch, T. 2015. Evolution of complex symbiotic relationships in a morphologically derived family of lichen-forming fungi. New Phytologist 208: 1217–1226.
Divakar, P. K., Crespo, A., Kraichak, E., Leavitt, S. D., Singh, G., Schmitt, I. & Lumbsch, H. T. 2017. Using a temporal method to harmonize family- and genus-level classification in the largest clade of lichen-forming fungi. Fungal Diversity 84: 101–117.
Edgar, R. C. 2004. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research 32: 1792–1797.
Galloway, D. J. 2007. Flora of New Zealand: Lichens, including lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, Vol 1. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln, New Zealand.
Hall, T. A. 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological seuene alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41: 95–98.
Halonen, P., Myllys, L., Velmala, S. & Hyvärinen, H. 2009. Gowardia (Parmeliaceae) – a new alectorioid lichen genus with two species. The Bryologist 112: 138–146.
Hansen, E. S. 2012. A contribution to the lichen flora of Melville Bugt north of Lat. 75°N, north west Greenland. Botanica Lithuanica 18: 117–122.
Hawksworth, D. H. 1972. Regional studies in Alectoria (Lichenes) II. The British species. Lichenologist 5: 181–261.
Hennig, W. 1966. Phylogenetic Systematics. University of Illinois Press, Chicago, IL.
Koroleva, N. 2014. Phytosociological evaluation of terrestrial habitat types in Pyramiden area (Svalbard, Norway). Czech Polar Reports 4: 193–211.
Kraichak, E., Crespo, A., Divakar, P. K., Leavitt, S. D. & Lumbsch, H. T. 2017. A temporal banding approach for consistent taxonomic ranking above the species level. Scientific Reports 7: 2297.
Lumbsch, H. T. & Huhndorf, S. 2010. Myconet Volume 14. Part one. Outline of the Ascomycota 2009. Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences 1: 1–40.
Lumbsch, H. T. & Leavitt, S. D. 2011. Goodbye morphology? A paradigm shift in the delimitation of species in lichenized fungi. Fungal Diversity 50: 59–72.
Lücking, R. 2019. Stop the Abuse of Time! Strict Temporal Banding is not the Future of Rank-Based Classifications in Fungi (Including Lichens) and Other Organisms. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 38: 199–253.
Lücking, R., Hodkinson, B. P. & Leavitt, S. D. 2017. [2016] The 2016 classification of lichenized fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota – Approaching one thousand genera. The Bryologist 119: 361–416.
McCune, B., Arup, U., Breuss, O, Di Meglio, E., Di Meglio, J., Esslinger, T. L., Magain, N, Miadlikowska, J., Miller, A. E., Muggia, L. Nelson, P. R., Rosentreter, R., Schultz, M., Sheard, J. W., Tønsberg, T. & Walton, J. 2018. Biodiversity and ecology of lichens of Katmai and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserves, Alaska. Mycosphere 9: 859–930.
McMullin, R. T. & Dorin, B. C. 2016. The Chic-Choc Mountains are the last southern refuge for arctic lichens in eastern North America. Arctic Science 2: 183–193.
Miadlikowska, J., Kauff, F., Högnabba, F., Oliver, J. C., Molnár, K., Fraker, E., Gaya, E., Hafellner, J., Hofstetter, V., Gueidan, C., Otálora, M. A. G., Hodkinson, B., Kukwa, M., Lücking, R., Björk, C., Sipman, H. J. M., Burgaz, A. R., Thell, A., Passo, A., Myllys, L., Goward, T., Fernández-Brime, S., Hestmark, G., Lendemer, J., Lumbsch, H. T., Schmull, M., Schocj, C. L., Sérusiaux, E., Maddison, D. R., Arnold, A. E., Lutzoni, F. & Stenroos, S. 2014. A multigene phylogenetic synthesis for the class Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota): 1307 fungi representing 1139 infrageneric taxa, 317 genera and 66 families. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 79: 132–168.
Moseev, D. S. & Sergienko, L. S. 2018. The composition and structure of plant communities in the southern part of the Franz Joseph Archipelago. Herald of the Kola Science Centre of the RAS (or Russian Academy of Sciences) 3: 14–24.
Myllys, L., Velmala, S., Holien, H., Halonen, P., Wang, L. S. & Goward, T. 2011. Phylogeny of the genus Bryoria. Lichenologist 43: 617–638.
Myllys, L., Velmala, S., Lindgren, H., Glavich, D., Carlberg, T., Wang, L. S. & Goward, T. 2014. Taxonomic delimitation of the genera Bryoria and Sulcaria, with a new combination Sulcaria spiralifera introduced. Lichenologist 46: 737–752.
Myllys, L., Velmala, S., Pino-Bodas, R. & Goward, T. 2016. New species in Bryoria (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes) from north-west North America. Lichenologist 48: 355–365.
Orange, A., James, P. W. & White, F. J. 2001. Microchemical methods for the identification of lichens. British Lichen Society.
Piercey-Normore, M. D. 2010. Lichens from the Hudson Bay Lowlands: northwestern interior treeline peatlands of Wapusk National Park in Manitoba. Botany 88: 923–929.
Stamatakis, A. 2014. RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30: 1312–1313.
Spribille, T., Tuovinen, V., Resl, P., Vanderpool, D., Wolinski, H., Aime, M. C., Schneider, K., Stabentheiner, E., Toome-Heller, M., Thor, G., Mayrhofer, H., Johannesson, H. & McCutcheon, J. P. 2016. Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens. Science 353: 488–492.
Thell, A., Kärnefelt, I. & Seaward, M. R. D. 2018. Splitting or synonymizing – genus concept and taxonomy exemplified by the Parmeliaceae in the Nordic region. Graphis Scripta 30: 130–137.
Velmala, S., Myllys, L., Goward, T., Holien, H. & Halonen, P. 2014. Taxonomy of Bryoria section Implexae (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) in North America and Europe, based on chemical, morphological and molecular data. Annales Botanici Fennici 51: 345–371.
Wang, L. S., Wang, X. Y., Liu, D., Myllys L., Shi, H. X., Zhang, Y. Y., Yang, M. X. & Li, L. J. 2017. Four new species of Bryoria (Lichenized Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae) from the Hengduan Mountains, China. Phytotaxa 297: 29–41.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top