Biodiversity and ecology of lichens of Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska
More details
Hide details
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Cordley 2082, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 USA
Botanical Museum, Lund University, Box 117, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Botanische Abteilung, Burgring 7, A-1010 Austria
North Dakota State University, Dept. of Biological Sciences #2715, PO Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108 USA
Duke University, Dept. of Biology, Box 90338, Durham, NC 27708 USA
National Park Service, 240 W 5th Ave., Anchorage, Alaska 99501 USA
Biological Sciences, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 USA
Herbarium Hamburgense, Institute for Plant Science and Microbiology, University of Hamburg, Ohnhorststr. 18, D-22609 Hamburg, Germany
Dept. of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 Canada
Department of Natural History, University Museum, University of Bergen, Allégt. 41, P.O. Box 7800, N-5020 Bergen, Norway
Online publication date: 2020-12-29
Publication date: 2020-12-29
Plant and Fungal Systematics 2020; 65(2): 586–619
We inventoried lichens in Kenai Fjords National Park in Alaska, USA We assembled the known information on occurrence and ecology of lichens in this park by combining field, herbarium, and literature studies. Our results provide baseline data on lichen occurrence that may be used in resource condition assessments, vulnerability assessments, long-term ecological monitoring, and resource management. We report a total of 616 taxa of lichenized fungi from the Park, plus an additional five subspecies and three varieties, all of which are new additions to the National Park Service database for this park unit. An additional five species of nonlichenized lichenicolous fungi are reported here. Eight non-lichenized fungi that are traditionally treated with lichens are also included, most of these associated with bark of particular host species. Four taxa new to North America are reported here (Arctomia delicatula var. acutior, Aspicilia dudinensis, Myriospora myochroa, and Ochrolechia bahusiensis), along with 44 species new to Alaska. Numerous species have been confirmed using ITS barcoding sequences. Also several records assigned to the genus level are reported, many of those are likely new species.
Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA). 1980. Public Law 96–487. 94 Statute 2371. https://www.nps.gov/locations/....
Alaska Natural Heritage Program (AKNHP). 2015. Rare lichen list. Alaska Natural Heritage Program. http://accs.uaa.alaska.edu/bot... [accessed 12 May 2016].
Allen, J. L., McMullin, R. T., Tripp, E. A. & Lendemer, J. C. 2019. Lichen conservation in North America: a review of current practices and research in Canada and the United States. Biodiversity and Conservation 28: 3103–3138.
Alphandary, E. & McCune, B. 2013. A new chemical spot test for miriquidic acid. The Lichenologist 45: 697–699.
Arup, U., Vondrák, J. & Halici, M. G. 2015. Parvoplaca nigroblastidiata, a new corticolous lichen (Teloschistaceae) in Europe, Turkey and Alaska. The Lichenologist 47: 379–385.
Bendiksby, M., Haugan, R., Spribille, T. & Timdal, E. 2015. Molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy of the Calvitimela aglaea complex (Tephromelataceae, Lecanorales). Mycologia 107: 1175–1183.
Bennett, J. & Wetmore, C. 2005. Lichens of the U. S. National Parks. The Bryologist 108: 544–553.
Bergamini, A., Scheidegger, C., Stofer, S., Carvalho, P., Davey, et al. 2005. Performance of macrolichens and lichen genera as indicators of lichen species richness and composition. Conservation Biology 19: 1051–1062.
Boggs, K., Klein, S. C., Flagstad, L., Boucher, T., Grunblatt, J. & Koltun, B. 2008. Landcover classes, ecosystems and plant associations of Kenai Fjords National Park. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/KEFJ/NRTR–2008/136. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Brodo, I. M. 1988. Studies of the lichen genus Ochrolechia. 1. A new classification for Pertusaria subplicans and P. rhodoleuca. Canadian Journal of Botany 66: 1264–1269.
Brodo, I. M. 1995. The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia, Canada. 1 Introduction and new records for B.C., Canada and North America. Mycotaxon 56: 135–173.
Brodo, I. M. 2010. The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia, Canada. 5. A new species of Lecanora from shoreline rocks. Botany 88: 352–358.
Brodo, I. M. 2016. Keys to Lichens of North America: Revised and Expanded. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.
Brodo, I. M. & Ahti, T. 1996. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 2. The Cladoniaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 1147–1180.
Brodo, I. M. & Hawksworth, D. L. 1977. Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42: 1–164.
Brodo, I. M. & Santesson, R. 1997. Lichens of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 3. Marine species of Verrucaria (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycotina). Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 82: 27–37.
Brodo, I. M., Haldeman, M. & Malíček, J. 2019. Notes on species of the Lecanora albella group (Lecanoraceae) from North America and Europe. The Bryologist 122: 430–450.
Calkin, P. E., Wiles, G. C. & Barclay, D. J. 2001. Holocene coastal glaciation of Alaska. Quaternary Science Reviews 20: 449–461.
Culberson, C. F. 1972. Improved conditions and new data for the identification of lichen products by a standardized thin-layer chromatographic method. Journal of Chromatography 72: 113–125.
Culberson, C. F. & Johnson, A. 1982. Substitution of methyl tert-butyl ether for diethyl ether in standardized thin-layer chromatographic method for lichen products. Journal of Chromatography 238: 483–487.
Culberson, C. F. & Kristinsson, H. 1970. A standardized method for the identification of lichen products. Journal of Chromatography 46: 85–93.
Dibben, M. J. 1980. The chemosystematics of the lichen genus Pertusaria in North America north of Mexico. Milwaukee Public Museum, Publications in Biology and Geology 5: 1–162.
Diederich, P. 1996. The lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 61: 1–198.
Divakar, P. K., Crespo, A., Kraichak, E., Leavitt, S. D., Singh, G., Schmitt, I. & Lumbsch, H. T. 2017. Using a temporal phylogenetic method to harmonize family and genus-level classification in the largest clade of lichen-forming fungi. Fungal Diversity 84: 101–117.
Esslinger, T. L. 2019. A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada, version 23. Opuscula Philolichenum 18: 102–378.
Esslinger, T. L., McCune, B. & Haughland, D. L. 2017. Physconia labrata, a new species from western North America and Asia. The Bryologist 120: 427–434.
Fontaine, K. M., Beck, A., Stocker-Wörgötter, E. & Piercey-Normore, M. D. 2012. Photobiont relationships and phylogenetic history of Dermatocarpon luridum var. luridum and related Dermatocarpon species. Plants 1: 39–60.
Foucard, T. 2001. Svenska skorplavar och svampar som växer på dem. Interpublishing, Stockholm.
Fryday, A. M. & Tønsberg, T. 2015. Ameliella, a bryicolous lichen genus rediscovered in North America after 50 years. Evansia 32: 171–175.
Geiser, L. H. & Neitlich, P. N. 2007. Air pollution and climate gradients in western Oregon and Washington indicated by epiphytic macrolichens. Environmental Pollution 145: 203–218.
Geiser, L. H., Jovan, S. E., Glavich, D. A. & Porter, M. K. 2010. Lichen-based critical loads for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in western Oregon and Washington forests, USA. Environmental Pollution 158: 2412–2421.
Goward, T. 1999. The Lichens of British Columbia. Illustrated Keys. Part 2, Fruticose Species. Crown Publications, Victoria, British Columbia.
Guindon S., Dufayard, J. F., Lefort, V., Anisimova, M., Hordijk, W. & Gascuel, O. 2010. New algorithms and methods to estimate maximum-likelihood phylogenies: Assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0. Systematic Biology 59: 307–321.
Guzow-Krzemińska, B., Łubek, A., Malíček, J., Tønsberg, T., Oset, M. & Kukwa, M. 2017. Lecanora stanislai, a new, sterile, usnic acid containing lichen species from Eurasia and North America. Phytotaxa 329: 201–211.
Henssen, A. 1969. Eine Studie über die Gattung Arctomia. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 63: 126–138.
Hertel, H. 2006. World distribution of species of Lecidea (Lecanorales) occurring in Central Europe. In: Lackovičová, A., Guttová, A., Lisická, E., Lizoň, P.: Central European Lichens – Diversity and Threat, pp. 19–74. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, and Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava.
Hite, D. M. &Stone, D. M. 2013. Chapter 1: A history of oil and gas exploration, discovery and future potential: Cook Inlet Basin, south-central Alaska. AAPG Memoir 104: Oil and Gas Fields of the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, pp. 1–35.
Hutten, M., Arup, U., Breuss, O., Esslinger, T. L., Fryday, A. M., et al. 2013. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Yosemite National Park, California. North American Fungi 8(11): 1–47.
IRMA. 2017. NPSpecies. Integrated Resource Management Application, National Park Service https://irma.nps.gov/NPSpecies... [accessed 26 July 2017].
Joly, K., Dale, B. W., Collins, W. B. & Adams, L. G. 2003. Winter habitat use by female caribou in relation to wildland fires in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81: 1192–1201.
Kearse, M., Moir, R., Wilson, A., Stones-Havas, S., Cheung, M., Sturrock, S., Buxton, S., Cooper, A., Markowitz, S., Duran, C., Thierer, T., Ashton, B., Mentjies, P. & Drummond, A. 2012. Geneious Basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics 28: 1647–1649.
Knudsen, K. & Kocourková, J. 2017. Acarospora toensbergii sp. nov. (Acarosporaceae), a saxicolous lichen from Alaska. Opuscula Philolichenum 16: 317–321.
Krog, H. 1968. The Macrolichens of Alaska. Norsk Polarinstitut. Skrifter Nr. 144. Oslo, Norway.
Lanik, A., Hults, C. P. & Kurtz, D. 2018. Kenai Fjords National Park: Geologic resources inventory report. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/GRD/NRR–2018/1851. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Leavitt, S. D., Divakar, P. K., Crespo, A. & Lumbsch, H. T. 2016. A matter of time – understanding the limits of the power of molecular data for delimiting species boundaries. Herzogia. 29: 479–492.
Lendemer, J. C. 2013a. A monograph of the crustose members of the genus Lepraria Ach. s.str. (Stereocaulaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes) in North America north of Mexico. Opuscula Philolichenum 11: 27–141.
Lendemer, J. C. 2013b. Molecular phylogenetic evidence corroborates morphology but not chemistry in the Lepraria neglecta group (Stereocaulaceae). Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden: Harmony and Grit: Papers Celebrating the Holmgrens’ Completion of Intermountain Flora 108: 127–153.
Lohtander, K. 1994. The genus Lepraria in Finland. Annales Botanici Fennici 31: 223–231.
Loso, M., Arendt, A., Larsen, C. F., Rich, J. & Murphy, N. 2014. Alaskan national park glaciers – Status and Trends. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/App/Refer....
Lücking, R., Moncada, B., McCune, B., Farkas, E., Goffinet, B., et al. 2017. Pseudocyphellaria crocata (Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) in the Americas is revealed to be thirteen species, and none of them is P. crocata. The Bryologist 120: 441–500.
McCune, B. 2008. Three new species of Hypogymnia (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae) from the Bering Sea region, Alaska and Russia. North American Fungi 3(6): 1–10.
McCune, B. 2017. Microlichens of the Pacific Northwest. 2 vols. Wild Blueberry Media, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.
McCune, B. 2018. Two new species in the Umbilicaria torrefacta group from Alaska and the Pacific Northwest of North America. Graphis Scripta 30: 65–77.
McCune, B. & Geiser, L. 2009. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. 2nd Edition. Oregon State University Press.
McCune, B. & Grace, J. B. 2002. Analysis of Ecological Communities. MjM Software Design, Gleneden Beach, Oregon.
McCune, B., Timdal, E. & Bendiksby, M. 2016. Rhizocarpon quinonum, a new anthraquinone-containing species from the Alaska Peninsula. The Lichenologist 48: 367–375.
McCune, B., Arup, U., Breuss, O., Di Meglio, E., Di Meglio, J., Esslinger, T. L., Magain, N., Miadlikowska, J., Miller, A. E., Muggia, L., Nelson, P. R., Rosentreter, R., Schultz, M., Sheard, J. W., Tønsberg, T. & Walton, J. 2018. Biodiversity and ecology of lichens of Katmai and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserves, Alaska. Mycosphere 9: 859–930.
McCune, B., Di Meglio, E., Tønsberg, T. & Yahr, R. 2019. Five new crustose Stereocaulon species in western North America. The Bryologist 122: 197–218.
McMullin, R. T. & Lendemer, J. C. 2013. Lichen biodiversity and conservation status in the Copeland Forest Resources Management Area: a lichen-rich second-growth forest in southern Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist 127: 240–254.
Miadlikowska, J., Magain, N., Pardo-De la Hoz, C. J., Niu, D., Goward, T., Sérusiaux, E. & Lutzoni, F. 2018. Species in section Peltidea (aphthosa group) of the genus Peltigera remain cryptic after molecular phylogenetic revision. Plant and Fungal Systematics 63: 45−64.
Miller, A. E., Carlson, M., Lipkin, R. & Spencer, P. 2006. Vascular plant inventory and baseline monitoring of nunatak communities (2005). Lake Clark National Park and Preserve and Kenai Fjords National Park. Southwest Alaska Network, National Park Service. Anchorage, Alaska.
Montgomery, S. L., Barker, C. E., Seamount, D., Dallegge, T. A. & Swenson, R. F. 2003. Coalbed methane, Cook Inlet, south-central Alaska: A potential giant gas resource. AAPG Bulletin 87: 1–13.
Morse, C. A. & Ladd, D. 2019. Staurothele nemorum sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Verrucariaceae), with a revised key to North American Staurothele s.lat. The Lichenologist 51: 495–506.
Myllys, L., Velmala, S., Holien, H., Halonen, P., Wang, L. S., Goward, T. 2011. Phylogeny of the genus Bryoria. The Lichenologist 43: 617–638.
Myllys, L., Velmala, S., Pino Bodas, R. & Goward, T. 2016. New species in Bryoria (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes) from north-west North America. The Lichenologist 48: 355–365.
Nelson, P. R, Roland, C., Macander, M. J. & McCune, B. 2013. Detecting continuous lichen abundance for mapping winter caribou forage at landscape spatial scales. Remote Sensing of Environment 137: 43–254.
Nelson, P. R., McCune, B. & Swanson, D. K. 2015. Lichen traits and species as indicators of vegetation and environment. The Bryologist 118: 252–263.
Onut-Brännström, I., Tibell, L. & Johannesson, H. 2017. A worldwide phylogeography of the whiteworm lichens Thamnolia reveals three lineages with distinct habitats and evolutionary histories. Ecology and Evolution 7: 3602–3615.
Onut-Brännström, I., Johannesson, H. & Tibell, L. 2018. Thamnolia tundrae sp. nov., a cryptic species and putative glacial relict. The Lichenologist 50: 59–76.
Orange, A. 2012. Semi-cryptic marine species of Hydropunctaria (Verrucariaceae, lichenised Ascomycota) from North-west Europe. The Lichenologist 44: 299–320.
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L. & McMahon, T. A. 2007. Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 11: 1633–1644.
Piercey-Normore, M. D., Ahti, T. & Goward, T. 2010. Phylogenetic and haplotype analyses of four segregates within Cladonia arbuscula s.l. Botany 88: 397–408.
Purvis, O., Fernández-Brime, S., Westberg, M. & Wedin, M. 2018. Myriospora, a genus newly reported for Antarctica with a worldwide key to the species. The Lichenologist 50: 101–112.
Richter, D. H. 1970. Geology and lode-gold deposits of the Nuka Bay area, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Professional Paper 625-B. US Geological Survey, Washington, DC. https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publi....
Ruess R. W., McFarland, J. M., Trummer, L. M. & Rohrs-Richey, J. K. 2009. Disease-mediated declines in N-fixation inputs by Alnus tenuifolia to early-successional floodplains in interior and south-central Alaska. Ecosystems 12: 489–502.
Root, H. T., McCune, B. & Jovan, S. 2014. Lichen communities and species indicate climate thresholds in southeast and south-central Alaska, USA. The Bryologist 117: 241–252.
Santesson, R., Moberg, R., Nordin, A., Tønsberg, T. & Vitikainen, O. 2004. Lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Fennoscandia. Museum of Evolutions, Uppsala.
Sheard, J. W., McCune, B. & Tønsberg, T. 2014. A new corticolous species of Rinodina (Physciaceae) and two interesting range extensions for species collected from Katmai National Park, Alaska. The Bryologist 117: 253–258.
Sherriff R. L., Berg, E. E. & Miller, A. E. 2011. Climate variability and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks in south-central and southwest Alaska. Ecology 92: 1459–1470.
Smith, R. J., Jovan, S. & McCune, B. 2017. Lichen Communities as Climate Indicators in the U.S. Pacific States. GTR-PNW-952. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon.
Smith, R. J., Jovan, S. & McCune, B. 2020. Climatic niche limits and community-level vulnerability of obligate symbioses. Journal of Biogeography 47: 382–395.
Spribille, T., Pérez-Ortega, S., Tønsberg, T. & Schirokauer, D. 2010. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park, Alaska, in a global biodiversity context. The Bryologist 113: 439–515.
Spribille, T., Fryday, A. M., Pérez-Ortega, S., Svensson, M., Tønsberg, T., Ekman, S., Elix, J. A., Holien, H., Stabentheiner, E., Thüs, H. & Sharman, L. 2020. Lichens and associated fungi from Glacier Bay, Alaska. The Lichenologist (in press).
Stehn, S. E., Walton, J. K., Nelson, P. R., Hampton-Miller, C. J. & Roland, C. A. 2015. A lichen species list for Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with comments on several new and noteworthy records. Evansia 32: 195–215.
Stenroos, S., Velmala, S., Pykälä, J. & Ahti, T. 2016. Lichens of Finland. Norrlinia 30: 1–896.
Stone, D. F., Hinds, J. W., Anderson, F. L. & Lendemer, J. C. 2016. A revision of the Leptogium saturninum group in North America. The Lichenologist 48: 387–422.
Szumigala, D. J., Harbo, L. A. & Adleman, J. N. 2010. Alaska’s Mineral Industry 2010: Special Report 65. Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska.
Talbot, S. S., Talbot, S. L., Thomson, J. W. & Schofield, W. B. 1997. Lichens of Adak Island, Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The Bryologist 100: 241–250.
Thomson, J. W. 1984. American Arctic Lichens, Vol. I: The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York.
Thomson, J. W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens, Vol. II. Crustose Lichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.
Thomson, J. W. & Ahti, T. 1994. Lichens collected on an Alaska Highway expedition in Alaska and Canada. The Bryologist 97: 138–157.
Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1–331.
Tønsberg, T. 2016. Jamesiella scotica new to North America from USA, Alaska. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 53: 23–24.
Tønsberg, T. & Printzen, C. 2018. Biatora troendelagica new to North America from Alaska, USA. Graphis Scripta 30: 161–165.
Triebel, D. 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 35: 1–278.
USDA 2010. Forest inventory and analysis national core field guide. FIA field methods for phase 3 measurements. Version 3.0. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. https://www.fia.fs.fed.us/libr....
Velmala, S., Myllys, L., Goward, T., Holien, H. & Halonen, P. 2014. Taxonomy of Bryoria section Implexae (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes) in North America and Europe, based on chemical, morphological and molecular data. Annales Botanici Fennici 51: 345–371.
Walton, J. K., Hutten, M. & Torigoe, S. K. 2014. Inventory of the Mosses, Liverworts, and Lichens of Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska. 2013 Progress Report. Natural Resource Data Series Report NPS/SWAN/NRDS–2014/635. National Park Service, Anchorage. Web site [accessed July 2017]: https://science.nature.nps.gov....
Wang, L. S., Wang, X. Y., Liu, D., Myllys, L., Shi, H. X., Zhang, Y. Y., Yang, M. X. & Li, L. J. 2017. Four new species of Bryoria (lichenized Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae) from the Hengduan Mountains, China. Phytotaxa 297: 29–41.
Werner R. A., Holsten, E. H., Matsuoka, S. M. & Burnside, R. E. 2006. Spruce beetles and forest ecosystems in south-central Alaska: a review of 30 years of research. Forest Ecology & Management 227: 195–206.
Westberg, M., Crewe, A. T., Purvis, O. W. & Wedin, M. 2011. Silobia, a new genus for the Acarospora smaragdula complex (Ascomycota, Acarosporales) and a revision of the group in Sweden. The Lichenologist 43: 7–25.
Zahradníková, M. 2017. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the family Fuscideaceae (Umbilicariales, Ascomycota) with special emphasis on Fuscidea. University of Bergen, PhD Thesis.
Alpine lichen diversity in an isolated sky island in the Colorado Plateau, USA—Insight from an integrative biodiversity inventory
Steven Leavitt, Jason Hollinger, Sara Summerhays, Isaac Munger, Jonah Allen, Barb Smith
Ecology and Evolution
A revision of the Rostania occultata (Collemataceae) complex in Fennoscandia
Alica Košuthová, Martin Westberg, Mats Wedin
The Lichenologist