ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Saxiloba: a new genus of placodioid lichens from the Caribbean and Hawaii shakes up the Porinaceae tree (lichenized Ascomycota: Gyalectales)
 
More details
Hide details
1
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Straße 6–8, 14195 Berlin, Germany
2
Licenciatura en Biología, Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Cra. 4 No. 26D-54, Torre de Laboratorios, Herbario, Bogotá D.C., Colombia
3
Departmento de Micologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Nelson Chaves s/n, Recife, PE 50670-420, Brasil
4
Jardín Botánico Nacional, Carretera del Rocío km 3½, Calabazar, 19230 Habana, Cuba
5
National Tropical Botanical Garden, 3530 Papalina Road, Kalaheo, HI 96741 USA
Online publication date: 2020-12-29
Publication date: 2020-12-29
 
Plant and Fungal Systematics 2020; 65(2): 577–585
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
The new genus Saxiloba is described with the two species S. firmula from the Caribbean and S. hawaiiensis from Hawaii. Saxiloba is characterized by a unique, placodioid thallus forming distinct lobes, growing on rock in shaded to exposed situations with a trentepohlioid photobiont and a fenestrate thallus anatomy with distinct surface lines. The material is often sterile, but Porina-like perithecia and ascospores had previously been described for the Caribbean taxon and were here confirmed for both species. Molecular sequence data also confirmed placement of this lineage in Porinaceae. Its position within that family supports the notion that Porinaceae should be subdivided into a larger number of genera than proposed in previous classification attempts. Compared to other Porinaceae, Saxiloba exhibits a unique morphology and anatomy that recalls taxa in the related family Graphidaceae and it substantially expands the known phenotypic variation within Porinaceae. The two recognized species are similar in overall morphology but, apart from their disjunct distribution and different substrate ecology, differ in lobe configuration, color and disposition of the crystal clusters and resulting surface patterns.
 
REFERENCES (63)
1.
Aptroot, A. & Bungartz, F. 2007. The lichen genus Ramalina on the Galapagos. The Lichenologist 39: 519–542.
 
2.
Aptroot, A. & Cáceras, M. E. S. 2013. Pyrenocarpous lichens (except Trypetheliaceae) in Rondônia. The Lichenologist 45: 763–785.
 
3.
Aptroot, A. & Sipman, H. J. M. 1993. Trichotheliaceae (Lichens). Flora of the Guianas. Series E: Fungi and Lichens, Fascicle 2, Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.
 
4.
Baloch, E. & Grube, M. 2006. Evolution and phylogenetic relationships within Porinaceae (Ostropomycetidae), focusing on foliicolous species. Mycological Research 110: 125–136.
 
5.
Baloch, E. & Grube, M. 2009. Pronounced genetic diversity in tropical epiphyllous lichen fungi. Molecular Ecology 18: 2185–2197.
 
6.
Boom, B. M. 1996. Botanical expeditions of The New York Botanical Garden. Brittonia 48: 297–307.
 
7.
Bungartz, F., Giralt, M., Sheard, J. W. & Elix, J. A. 2016. The lichen genus Rinodina (Physciaceae, Teloschistales) in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. The Bryologist 119: 60–93.
 
8.
Carlquist, S., Baldwin, B. G. & Carr, G. D. (eds) 2003. Tarweeds & Silverswords: Evolution of the Madiinae (Asteraceae). St. Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
 
9.
Chen, Y., Ye, W., Zhang, Y. & Xu, Y. 2015. High speed BLASTN: an accelerated MegaBLAST search tool. Nucleic Acids Research 43: 7762–7768.
 
10.
Dal Forno, M., Bungartz, F., Yánez-Ayabaca, A., Lücking, R. & Lawrey, J. D. 2017. High levels of endemism among Galapagos basidiolichens. Fungal Diversity 85: 45–73.
 
11.
Eldredge, L. G. & Miller, S. E. 1995. How many species are there in Hawaii? Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 41: 3–18.
 
12.
Follmann, G. 1965. Fensterflechten in der Atacamawuste. Die Naturwissenschaften 52: 434–435.
 
13.
Frisch, A., Kalb, K. & Grube, M. 2006. Contributions towards a new systematics of the lichen family Thelotremataceae. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 92: 1–539.
 
14.
Fryday, A. M. & Hertel, H. 2014. A contribution to the family Lecideaceae s.lat. (Lecanoromycetidae inc. sed., lichenized Ascomycota) in the southern subpolar region; including eight new species and some revised generic circumscriptions. The Lichenologist 46: 389–412.
 
15.
Gannutz, T. P. 1970. A study of the lichens of an irradiated rain forest. In Odum, H. T. & Pigeon, R. F. (eds). A Tropical Rain Forest. A Study of irradiation and Ecology at El Verde, Puerto Rico: D227–D231. Division of Technical Information, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge.
 
16.
Givnish, T. J., Millam, K. C., Theim, T. T., Mast, A. R., Patterson, T. B., Hipp, A. L., Henss, J. M., Smith, J. F., Wood, K. R. & Sytsma, K. J. 2009. Origin, adaptive radiation, and diversification of the Hawaiian lobeliads (Asterales: Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 276: 407–416.
 
17.
Grube, M., Baloch, E. & Lumbsch, H. T. 2004. The phylogeny of Porinaceae (Ostropomycetidae) suggests a neotenic origin of perithecia in Lecanoromycetes. Mycological Research 108: 1111–1118.
 
18.
Hafellner, J. & Kalb, K. 1995. Studies in Trichotheliales ordo novus. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 57: 161–186.
 
19.
Harada, H. 2015. Saxicolous and corticolous species of Porina (lichenized Ascomycota, Porinaceae) of Japan (part 1). Lichenology 14: 1–26.
 
20.
Harada, H. 2016: Saxicolous and corticolous species of Porina (Lichenized Ascomycota, Porinaceae) of Japan (Part 2). Lichenology 14: 91–118.
 
21.
Harris, R. C. 2005. Some name changes in Porina s.lat. Opuscula Philolichenum 2: 15–16.
 
22.
Sastre de Jesús, I. & Santiago-Valentín, E. 1996. Botanical explorations of Puerto Rico by NL Britton and EG Britton: their significance in plant conservation, horticulture, and education. Brittonia 48: 322–336.
 
23.
Johnson, M. P. & Raven, P. H. 1973. Species number and endemism: The galápagos archipelago revisited. Science 179: 893–895.
 
24.
Kallunki, J. A. 1980. Cuban plant collections of J. A. Shafer, N. L. Britton & P. Wilson. Brittonia 32: 397–420.
 
25.
Katoh, K. & Standley, D. M. 2013. MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30: 772–780.
 
26.
Knope, M. L., Morden, C. W., Funk, V. A. & Fukami, T. 2012. Area and the rapid radiation of Hawaiian Bidens (Asteraceae). Journal of Biogeography 39: 1206–1216.
 
27.
Kraichak, E., Huang, J. P., Nelsen, M., Leavitt, S. D. & Lumbsch, H. T. 2018. A revised classification of orders and families in the two major subclasses of Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota) based on a temporal approach. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 188: 233–249.
 
28.
Lerner, H. R., Meyer, M., James, H. F., Hofreiter, M. & Fleischer, R. C. 2011. Multilocus resolution of phylogeny and timescale in the extant adaptive radiation of Hawaiian honeycreepers. Current Biology 21: 1838–1844.
 
29.
Lücking, R. 1998. Additions and corrections to the knowledge of the foliicolous lichen flora of Costa Rica. The genus Trichothelium (lichenized Ascomycetes: Trichotheliaceae). Nova Hedwigia 66: 375–417.
 
30.
Lücking, R. 2019. Stop the abuse of time! Strict temporal banding is not the future of rank-based classifications in Fungi (including lichens) and other organisms. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 38: 199–253.
 
31.
Lücking, R. & Vězda, A. 1998. Taxonomic studies in foliicolous species of the genus Porina (lichenized Ascomycotina: Trichotheliaceae) II. The Porina epiphylla group. Willdenowia 28: 181–225.
 
32.
Lücking, R., Mangold, A., Rivas Plata, E., Parnmen, S., Kraichak, E. & Lumbsch, H. T. 2015. Morphology-based phylogenetic binning to assess a taxonomic challenge: a case study in Graphidaceae (Ascomycota) requires a new generic name for the widespread Leptotrema wightii. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 436: 436–443.
 
33.
Lücking, R., Moncada, M. & Smith, C. W. 2017. The genus Lobariella (Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) in Hawaii: late colonization, high inferred endemism, and three new species. The Lichenologist 49: 673–691.
 
34.
Makhija, U., Adawadkar, B. & Patwardhan, P. G. 1994. The lichen genus Porina (family Trichotheliaceae) from India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 18: 521–545.
 
35.
Malcolm, W. M., Elix, J. A. & Owe-Larsson, B. 1995. Labyrintha implexa (Porpidiaceae), a new genus and species from New Zealand. The Lichenologist 27: 241–248.
 
36.
McCarthy P. M. 1993. Saxicolous species of Porina Müll. Arg. (Trichotheliaceae) in the Southern Hemisphere. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 52: 1–134.
 
37.
McCarthy, P. M. 1995. A reappraisal of Clathroporina Müll. Arg. (Trichotheliaceae). The Lichenologist 27: 321–350.
 
38.
McCarthy, P. M. 2001. Trichotheliaceae. In McCarthy, P. M. (ed.). Flora of Australia. Volume 58A, Lichens 3: 105–157. ABRS/CSIRO Australia, Melbourne.
 
39.
McCarthy, P. M. 2003. Catalogue of the Lichen Family Porinaceae. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 87: 1–164.
 
40.
McCarthy, P. M. & Elix, J. A. 1996. Myeloconis, a new genus of pyrenocarpous lichens from the tropics. The Lichenologist 28: 401–414.
 
41.
McCarthy, P. M. & Malcolm, W. M. 1997. The genera of Trichotheliaceae. The Lichenologist 29: 1–8.
 
42.
Mercado-Díaz, J. A. 2009. Preliminary Checklist of Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi of Puerto Rico (Version 1, July 2009). Published by the author, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
 
43.
Mercado-Díaz, J. A., Lücking, R., Moncada, B., Widhelm, T. J. & Lumbsch, H. T. 2020. Elucidating species richness in lichen fungi: the genus Sticta (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae) in Puerto Rico. Taxon. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12... [online first].
 
44.
Moncada, B., Reidy, B. & Lücking, R. 2014. A phylogenetic revision of Hawaiian Pseudocyphellaria (lichenized Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) reveals eight new species and a high degree of inferred endemism. The Bryologist 117: 119–160.
 
45.
Morden, C. W., Weniger, D. & Gardner, D. E. 2003. Phylogeny and biogeography of Pacific Rubus subg. Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei. Pacific Science 57: 181–197.
 
46.
Müller, J. 1885. Pyrenocarpeae Cubenses a cl. C. Wright lectae. Botanische Jahrbücher 6: 375–421.
 
47.
Nelsen, M. P., Lücking, R., Andrew, C. J., Aptroot, A., Cáceres, M. E. S., Mercado-Díaz, J. A., Rivas Plata, E. & Lumbsch, H. T. 2014. Molecular phylogeny reveals the true colours of Myeloconidaceae (Ascomycota: Ostropales). Australian Systematic Botany 27: 38–47.
 
48.
Nylander, W. 1876. Circa Pyrenocarpeos in Cuba lectos a cl. C. Wright. Flora 59: 364–365.
 
49.
O’Grady, P. & DeSalle, R. 2008. Out of Hawaii: the origin and biogeography of the genus Scaptomyza (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Biology Letters 4: 195–199.
 
50.
Parent, C. E. & Crespi, B. J. 2009. Ecological opportunity in adaptive radiation of Galapagos endemic land snails. The American Naturalist 174: 898–905.
 
51.
Pax, D. L., Price, R. A. & Michaels, H. L. 1997. Phylogenetic position of the Hawaiian Geraniums based on rbcL sequences. American Journal of Botany 84: 72–78.
 
52.
Rambaut, A. & Drummond, A. J. 2012. FigTree Version 1.4.0. http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/softw....
 
53.
Riddle, L. W. 1923. The lichens of the Isle of Pines. Mycologia 15: 68–88.
 
54.
Rivas Plata, E., Lücking, R. & Lumbsch, H. T. 2008. When family matters: an analysis of Thelotremataceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) as bioindicators of ecological continuity in tropical forests. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 1319–1351.
 
55.
Rivas Plata, E., Lücking, R., Sipman, H. J. M., Mangold, A., Kalb, K. & Lumbsch, H. T. 2010. A world-wide key to the thelotremoid Graphidaceae, excluding the Ocellularia-Myriotrema-Stegobolus clade. The Lichenologist 42: 139–185.
 
56.
Smith, C. W. 2013. Checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Hawaii (USA). http://www.biologie.uni-hambur....
 
57.
Sobreira, P. N. B., Cáceres, M. E. S., Maia, L. C. & Lücking, R. 2018. Flabelloporina, a new genus in the Porinaceae (Ascomycota, Ostropales), with the first record of F. squamulifera from Brazil. Phytotaxa 358: 67–75.
 
58.
Stamatakis, A. 2014. RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30: 1312–1313.
 
59.
Tye, A. & Francisco-Ortega, J. 2011. Origins and evolution of Galapagos endemic vascular plants. In Bramwell, D. & Caujapé-Castells, J. (eds). The Biology of Island Floras: 89–153. Cambridge University Press, Cambride.
 
60.
Vogel, S. 1955. Niedere „Fensterpflanzen” in der südafrikanischenWüste. Eine ökologische Schilderung. Beitraege zur Biologie der Pflanzen 31: 45–135.
 
61.
Vondrák, J. & Kubásek, J. 2013. Algal stacks and fungal stacks as adaptations to high light in lichens. The Lichenologist 45: 115–124.
 
62.
Wagner, W. L. & Funk, V. A. (eds) 1995. Hawaiian Biogeography: Evolution on a Hot Spot Archipelago. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC.
 
63.
Weber, W. A. 1986. The lichen flora of the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Mycotaxon 27: 451–49.
 
eISSN:2657-5000
ISSN:2544-7459