The orchid genus Phloeophila is distributed from southern Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia, as well as Cuba. A taxonomic revision including the three Phloeophila species present in Ecuador is presented. Morphological characteristics, an identification key, maps of known localities and illustrations of the species are also included. In Ecuador, species of Phloeophila are only known from the Amazonian rainforests, growing from 890 to 1600 meters of altitude. Phloeophila condorana is described as a new species based on specimens collected in the Ecuadorian province of Zamora-Chinchipe and compared to Phloeophila nummularia. Phloeophila nummularia is reported for the first time in Peru. A lectotype for Pleurothallis echinantha is selected.
We acknowledge Universidad de Las Américas (UDLA) for funding research on orchids in Ecuador and the Ministerio del Ambiente (MAE) for granting the Research Permit No. 008-2016-IC-FLO-DNB/MA.
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