Hawaiian lichen species have been thought to be widespread, with low endemism. Nine species of the genus Sticta (Peltigeraceae subfamily Lobarioideae) have previously been reported for Hawaii, all supposedly cosmopolitan or Pantropical or widespread in the Paleotropics except for the putative endemic S. plumbicolor. This study is the first one employing a molecular phylogenetic approach to Hawaiian Sticta, elucidating the relationships of these conspicuous and ecologically important macrolichens. We sequenced the ITS fungal barcoding locus and used a maximum likelihood approach to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of Hawaiian Sticta from a large dataset of more than 200 species. Thirteen species were identified among Hawaiian Sticta, four more than previously recorded. Of these, seven are new to science and putatively endemic to Hawaii. Only four previously reported species were confirmed: S. fuliginosa, S. limbata, S. plumbicolor and S. tomentosa. Together with S. plumbicolor and S. scabrosa subsp. hawaiiensis (described elsewhere), putative endemism in Hawaiian Sticta is estimated at 69%. The 13 species correspond to nine or ten colonization events, predominantly from the Australasian realm. Thus, the evolutionary history of Sticta lichens in the Hawaiian archipelago is very different from what has been assumed, and matches that of other organisms in many aspects. The seven new species, all with cyanobacterial photobionts, are Sticta acyphellata, a small, stipitate Sticta with isidia and lacking cyphellae; S. antoniana, a mid-sized Sticta with abundant marginal lobules, apothecia, and a thick, grey-brown lower tomentum ending abruptly to leave a bare marginal zone; S. emmanueliana, a small, shortly stipitate Sticta forming small lobes with marginal isidia and black cilia; S. flynnii, a small, shortly stipitate Sticta with largely unbranched thallus with marginal isidia and a veined underside producing large, irregular cyphellae; S. hawaiiensis, a small Sticta with a suborbicular thallus with laminal isidia, conspicuous white cilia, and papillae on the membrane of the cyphellae; S. smithii, a small, stipitate Sticta with marginal, flattened isidia and small cyphellae; and S. waikamoi, a small to mid-sized Sticta with a much-branched thallus with slightly canaliculate lobes and marginal, dark isidia, and a thick, dark brown lower tomentum with strongly contrasting whitish cyphellae.
of the Guayana Highland, Venezuela. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 25: 419–420.
Ahti, T. & Aptroot, A. 1992. Lichens of Madagascar: Cladoniaceae. Cryptogamie, Bryologie-Lichénologie 13: 117–124.
Antoine, M. E. 2004. An ecophysiological approach to quantifying nitrogen fixation by Lobaria oregana. The Bryologist 107: 82–87.
Aptroot, A. 2016. Preliminary checklist of the lichens of Madagascar, with two new thelotremoid Graphidaceae and 131 new records. Willdenowia 46: 349–366.
Baldwin, B. G. & Sanderson, M. J. 1998. Age and rate of diversification of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95: 9402–9406.
Baldwin, B. G., Kyhos, D. W., Dvorak, J. & Carr, G. D. 1991. Chloroplast DNA evidence for a North American origin of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88: 1840–1843.
Barrier, M., Robichaux, R. H. & Purugganan, M. D. 2001. Accelerated regulatory gene evolution in an adaptive radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98: 10208–10213.
Becker, V. E. 1980. Nitrogen fixing lichens in forests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. The Bryologist 83: 29–39.
Beckett, R. P. 1995. Some aspects of the water relations of lichens from habitats of contrasting water status studied using thermocouple psychrometry. Annals of Botany 76: 211–217.
Benner, J. W. & Vitousek, P. M. 2012. Cyanolichens: a link between the phosphorus and nitrogen cycles in a Hawaiian montane forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 28: 73–81.
Benner, J. W., Conroy, S., Lunch, C. K., Toyoda, N. & Vitousek, P. M. 2007. Phosphorus fertilization increases the abundance of nitrogenase activity of the cyanolichen Pseudocyphellaria crocata in Hawaiian montane forests. Biotropica 39: 400–405.
Bock, C., Hauck, M. & Fischer, E. 2007. The lichen flora of Rwanda: an annotated checklist. Willdenowia 37: 563–575.
Brodo, I. M., Sharnoff, S. D. & Sharnoff, S. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven & London.
Brown, G. K., Murphy, D. J., Kidman, J. & Ladiges, P. Y. 2012. Phylogenetic connections of phyllodinous species of Acacia outside Australia are explained by geological history and human-mediated dispersal. Australian Systematic Botany 25: 390–403.
Carlquist, S., Baldwin, B. G. & Carr, G. D. (eds) 2003. Tarweeds & Silverswords: Evolution of the Madiinae (Asteraceae). Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, Missouri.
Casacci, L. P., Barbero, F. & Balletto, E. 2014. The ‘Evolutionarily Significant Unit’ concept and its applicability in biological conservation. Italian Journal of Zoology 81: 182–193.
Cornejo, C., Derr, C. & Dillman, K. 2017. Ricasolia amplissima (Lobariaceae): one species, three genotypes and a new taxon from south-eastern Alaska. The Lichenologist 49: 579–596.
Delise, D. 1825. Histoire de Lichens. Genre Sticta. Caen.
Drummond, A. J. & Rambaut, A. 2007. BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 214.
Drummond, A. J., Suchard, M. A., Xie, D. & Rambaut, A. 2012. Bayesian phylogenetics with BEAUti and the BEAST 1.7. Molecular Biology and Evolution 29: 1969–1973.
Ekman, S., Tønsberg, T. & Jørgensen, P. M. 2019. The Sticta fuliginosa group in Norway and Sweden. Graphis Scripta 31: 23–33.
Eldredge, L. G. & Miller, S. E. 1995. How many species are there in Hawaii? Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 41: 3–18.
Eliasaro, S., Gerlach, A. D. C. L. & Gumboski, E. L. 2012. Novos registros de fungos liquenizados para o estado do Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências 10: 507–512.
Elix, J. A. & McCarthy, P. M. 1998. Catalogue of the lichens of the smaller Pacific Islands. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 70: 1–361.
Elix, J. A. & McCarthy, P. M. 2008. Checklist of Pacific Island Lichens. https://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/l... [accessed 27 November 2019].
Ellshoff, Z. E., Gardner, D. E., Wikler, C. & Smith, C. W., 1995. Annotated bibliography of the genus Psidium, with emphasis on P. cattleianum (strawberry guava) and P. guajava (common guava), forest weeds in Hawai’i. Technical Report 95, Department of Botany, Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa.
Esslinger, T. L. 1978. Studies in the lichen family Physciaceae. III. A new species of Phaeophyscia from Hawaii. Mycologia 70: 1247–1249.
Evenhuis, N. L. & Eldredge, L. G. (eds) 2002. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 68: 1–78.
Feuerer, T. & Hawksworth, D. L. 2007. Biodiversity of lichens, including a world-wide analysis of checklist data based on Takhtajan’s floristic regions. Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 85–98.
Fleischer, R. C., McIntosh, C. E. & Tarr, C. L. 1998. Evolution on a volcanic conveyor belt: using phylogeographic reconstructions and K–Ar-based ages of the Hawaiian Islands to estimate molecular evolutionary rates. Molecular Ecology 7: 533–545.
Follmann, G. 1974. Zur Nomenclatur der Lichenen. I. Erganzungen und Neukombinationen. Philippia 2: 73–74.
Fosberg, E. R. 1936. The Hawaiian Geraniums. Occasional Papers of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum 12: 1–19.
Galloway, D. J. 1991. Biogeographical relationships of Pacific tropical lichen floras. In: Galloway, D. J. (ed.), Tropical Lichens: Their Systematics, Conservation, and Ecology, pp. 1–16. The Systematics Association Special Volume, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Galloway, D. J. 1994a. Biogeography and ancestry of lichens and other ascomycetes. In: Hawksworth, D. L. (ed.), Ascomycete Systematics. Problems and Perspectives in the Nineties, pp. 175–184. NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series, Plenum Press, New York.
Galloway, D. J. 1994b. Studies on the lichen genus Sticta (Schreber) Ach.: I. Southern South American species. The Lichenologist 26: 223–282.
Galloway, D. J. 1995. Studies on the lichen genus Sticta (Schreber) Ach.: III. Notes on species described by Bory de St-Vincent, William Hooker, and Delise, between 1804 and 1825. Nova Hedwigia 61: 147–188.
Galloway, D. J. 1998. Studies on the lichen genus Sticta (Schreber) Ach.: V. Australian species. Tropical Bryology 15: 117–160.
Galloway, D. J. 2001. Sticta. In: McCarthy, P. M. (ed.), Flora of Australia. Volume 58A, Lichens 3, pp. 78–97. ABRS/CSIRO Australia, Melbourne.
Galloway, D. J. 2006. Notes on the holotype of Sticta damaecornis β weigelii Ach. (= Sticta weigelii). The Lichenologist 38: 89–92.
Galloway, D. J. 2007. Flora of New Zealand Lichens. Revised Second Edition Including Lichen-Forming and Lichenicolous Fungi. Volume 2. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln, New Zealand.
Galloway, D. J. 2008. Lichen biogeography. In: Nash, T. H. III (ed.), Lichen Biology. Second Edition, pp. 315–335. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Gardes, M. & Bruns, T. D. 1993. ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes – application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rust. Molecular Ecology 2: 113–118.
Geiger, J. M. O., Ranker, T. A., Neale, J. M. R. & Klimas, S. T. 2007. Molecular biogeography and origins of the Hawaiian fern flora. Brittonia 59: 142–158.
Givnish, T. J., Millam, K. C., Theim, T. T., Mast, A. R., Patterson, T. B., Hipp, A. L., Henss, J. M., Smith, J. F., Wood, K. R. & Sytsma, K. J. 2009. Origin, adaptive radiation, and diversification of the Hawaiian lobeliads (Asterales: Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 276: 407–416.
Green, T. G. A. & Lange, O. L. 1991. Ecophysiological adaptations of the lichen genera Pseudocyphellaria and Sticta to south temperate rainforests. The Lichenologist 23: 267–282.
Green, T. G. A., Horstmann, J., Bonnett, H., Wilkins, A. & Silvester, W. B. 1980. Nitrogen fixation by members of the Stictaceae (Lichenes) of New Zealand. New Phytologist 84: 339–348.
Green, T. G. A., Snelgar, W. P. & Brown, D. H. 1981. Carbon dioxide exchange in lichens. Carbon dioxide exchange through the cyphellate lower cortex of Sticta latifrons Rich. New Phytologist 88: 421–426.
Green, T. G. A., Snelgar, W. P. & Wilkins, A. L. 1985. Photosynthesis, water relations and thallus structure of Stictaceae lichens. In: Brown, D. H. (ed.), Lichen Physiology and Cell Biology, pp. 57–75. Plenum Press, New York and London.
Guzmán, G., Quilhot, W. & Galloway, D. J. 1990. Decomposition of species of Pseudocyphellaria and Sticta in a southern Chilean forest. The Lichenologist 22: 325–331.
Hall, T. 2011. BioEdit: an important software for molecular biology. GERF Bull of Biosciences 2: 60–61.
Hodkinson, B. P., Lendemer, J. C., McDonald, T. & Harris, R. C. 2014. The Status of Sticta sylvatica, an ‘Exceedingly Rare’ Lichen Species, in Eastern North America. Evansia 31: 17–25.
Imada, C. T. (ed.) 2012. Hawaiian native and naturalized vascular plants checklist (December 2012 update). Bishop Museum Technical Report 60: 1–29, 7 appendices.
Inoue, M. 2002. Four Arctic-alpine or bipolar species of Lecidea (Lichenes) new to the Hawaii Islands. Bulletin of the National Science Museum (Tokyo), Series B (Botany) 28: 7–10.
Jørgensen, P. M. 1983. Distribution patterns of lichens in the Pacific region. Australian Journal of Botany, Supplemental Series 10: 43–66.
Jørgensen, P. M. 1994. Studies in the lichen family Pannariaceae VI: the taxonomy and phytogeography of Pannaria Del. s.lat. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 76: 197–206.
Joshi, M. & Awasthi, D. D. 1982. The lichen family Stictaceae in India and Nepal. Biological Memoirs 7: 165–190.
Katoh, K. & Frith, M. C. 2012. Adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment using MAFFT and LAST. Bioinformatics 28: 3144–3146.
Katoh, K. & Standley, D. M. 2013. MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30: 772–780.
Kelly, B. B. & Becker, V. E. 1975. Effects of light intensity and temperature on nitrogen fixation by Lobaria pulmonaria, Sticta weigelii, Leptogium cyanescens and Collema subfurvum. The Bryologist 78: 350–355.
Kidd, S. E. 2005. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Hawaiian Geraniums. MSc Thesis, Bowling Green State University, Ohio.
Kistenich, S., Timdal, E., Bendiksby, M. & Ekman, S. 2018. Molecular systematics and character evolution in the lichen family Ramalinaceae (Ascomycota: Lecanorales). Taxon 67: 871–904.
Klement, O. 1966. Zur Kenntnis der Flechtenflora und -vegetation des Hawaii-Archipels. Nova Hedwigia 11: 243–283.
Klement, O. 1968. Key to Hawaiian Lichens. Degener’s Flora Hawaiiana 1: 1–6.
Lendemer, J. C. & Goffinet, B. 2016. Sticta deyana: a new endemic photomorphic lichen from the imperiled Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of eastern North America. Systematic Botany 40. 933–941.
Louwhoff, S. H. J. J. 2001. Biogeography of Hypotrachyna, Parmotrema and allied genera (Parmeliaceae) in the Pacific Islands. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 78: 223–246.
Lücking, R. 2003. Takhtajan’s floristic regions and foliicolous lichen biogeography: a compatibility analysis. The Lichenologist 35: 33–54.
Lücking, R. & Kalb, K. 2001. New Caledonia, foliicolous lichens and island biogeography. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 78: 247–273.
Lücking, R., Hodkinson, B. P. & Leavitt, S. D. 2017a (‘2016’). The 2016 classification of lichenized fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota – Approaching one thousand genera. The Bryologist 119: 361–416.
Lücking, R., Moncada, B., McCune, B., Farkas, E. E., Goffinet, B., Parker, D., Chaves, J. L., Lőkös, L., Nelson, P. R., Spribille, T., Stenroos, S., Wheeler, T., Yanez-Ayabaca, A., Dillman, K., Gockman, O. T., Goward, T., Hollinger, J., Tripp, E. A., Villella, J., Álvaro-Alba, W. R., Arango, C. J., Cáceres, M. E. S., Coca, L. F., Printzen, C., Rodríguez, C., Scharnagl, K., Rozzi, R., Soto-Medina, E. & Yakovchenko, L. S. 2017b. Pseudocyphellaria crocata (Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) in the Americas reveals to be ten species, and none of them is Pseudocyphellaria crocata. The Bryologist 120: 441–500.
Lücking, R., Moncada, B. & Smith, C. W. 2017c. The genus Lobariella (Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) in Hawaii: late colonization, high inferred endemism, and three new species. The Lichenologist 49: 673–691.
Magain, N. & Sérusiaux, E. 2015. Dismantling the treasured flagship lichen Sticta fuliginosa (Peltigerales) into four species in Western Europe. Mycological Progress 14: 97.
Magnusson, A. H. 1955. A catalogue of Hawaiian lichens. Arkiv för Botanik, Ser. 2, 3(10): 223–402.
Magnusson, A. H. & Zahlbruckner, A. 1943. Hawaiian lichens I. The families Verrucariaceae to Peltigeraceae. Arkiv för Botanik 31A(1): 1–96.
Magnusson, A. H. & Zahlbruckner, A. 1944. Hawaiian lichens. II. The families Lecideaceae to Parmeliaceae. Arkiv för Botanik, 31A(6): 1–109.
Magnusson, A. H. & Zahlbruckner, A. 1945. Hawaiian lichens III. The families Usneaceae to Physciaceae. Index. Arkiv för Botanik, 32A(2): 1–89.
Marbach, B. 2000. Corticole und lignicole Arten der Flechtengattung Buellia sensu lato in den Subtropen und Tropen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 74: 1–384.
Marcano, V., Morales Méndez, A., Sipman, H. J. M. & Calderon, L. 1996. A first checklist of the lichen-forming fungi of the Venezuelan Andes. Tropical Bryology 12: 193–235.
McDonald, T., Miadlikowska, J. & Lutzoni, F. 2003. The lichen genus Sticta in the Great Smoky Mountains: a phylogenetic study of morphological, chemical, and molecular data. The Bryologist 106: 61–80.
Medina R., Johnson, M. G., Liu, Y., Wilding, N. J., Hedderson, T., Wickett, N. & Goffinet, B. 2018. Evolutionary dynamism in bryophytes: phylogenomic inferences confirm rapid radiation in the family Funariaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 120: 240–247.
Mercado-Díaz, J. A., Lücking, R., Moncada, B., Widhelm, T. J. & Lumbsch, H. T. 2020. Elucidating species richness in lichen fungi: the genus Sticta (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae) in Puerto Rico. Taxon (in press).
Miller, M. A., Pfeiffer, W. & Schwartz, T. 2010. Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. In: Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), New Orleans, pp. 1–8.
Mitchell, A. A., Li, R., Brown, J. W., Schönberger, I. & Wen, J. 2012. Ancient divergence and biogeography of Raukaua (Araliaceae) and close relatives in the southern hemisphere. Australian Systematic Botany 25: 432–446.
Moncada, B. 2012. El Género Sticta (Schreb.) Ach. en Colombia: Taxonomía, Ecogeografía e Importancia. Doctoral Dissertation, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D.C., Colombia.
Moncada, B. & Lücking, R. 2012. Ten new species of Sticta and counting: Colombia as a hot spot for unrecognized diversification in a conspicuous macrolichen genus. Phytotaxa 74: 1–29.
Moncada, B., Lücking, R. & Betancourt, L. 2013a. Phylogeny of the Lobariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Peltigerales), and a reappraisal of the genus Lobariella. The Lichenologist 45: 203–263.
Moncada, B., Coca, L. F. & Lücking, R. 2013b. Neotropical members of Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) forming photosymbiodemes, with the description of seven new species. The Bryologist 116: 169–200.
Moncada, B., Lücking, R. & Coca, L. F. 2013c. Six new apotheciate species of Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) from the Colombian Andes. The Lichenologist 45: 635–656.
Moncada, B., Lücking, R. & Suárez, A. 2014a. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) in Colombia. Fungal Diversity 64: 205–231.
Moncada, B., Reidy, B. & Lücking, R. 2014b. A phylogenetic revision of Hawaiian Pseudocyphellaria (lichenized Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) reveals eight new species and a high degree of inferred endemism. The Bryologist 117: 119–160.
Moncada, B., Suárez, A. & Lücking, R. 2015. Nueve especies nuevas del género Sticta (Ascomycota liquenizados: Lobariaceae) del morfotipo fuliginosa sensu lato de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 39: 50–66.
Mueller-Dombois, D. 1987. Forest dynamics in Hawaii. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2: 216–220.
Nilsson, R. H., Larsson, K. H., Taylor, A. F. S., Bengtsson-Palme, J., Jeppesen, T. S., Schigel, D., Kennedy, P., Picard, K., Glöckner, F. O., Tedersoo, L. & Saar, I. 2019. The UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi: handling dark taxa and parallel taxonomic classifications. Nucleic Acids Research 47(D1): D259–D264.
Nylander, W. 1859. Lichenes Exotici, Lichenes in regionibus exoticis quibusdam vigentes exponit synopticis enumerationibus. Annales des Sciences Naturelles 11: 205–264.
Orange, A., James, P. W. & White, F. J. 2010. Microchemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens, 2nd Ed. London: British Lichen Society.
Pax, D. L., Price, R. A. & Michaels, H. L. 1997. Phylogenetic position of the Hawaiian Geraniums based on rbcL sequences. American Journal of Botany 84: 72–78.
Penn, O., Privman, E., Ashkenazy, H., Landan, G., Graur, D. & Pupko, T. 2010a. GUIDANCE: a web server for assessing alignment confidence scores. Nucleic Acids Research 38: W23–W28.
Penn, O., Privman, E., Landan, G., Graur, D. & Pupko, T. 2010b. An alignment confidence score capturing robustness to guide-tree uncertainty. Molecular Biology and Evolution 27: 1759–1767.
Percy, D. M., Garver, A. M., Wagner, W. L., James, H. F., Cunningham, C. W., Miller, S. E. & Fleischer, R. C. 2008. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae). Proceedings of the Royal Society, B-Biological Sciences 275: 1479–1490.
Pišút, I. 2005. Čeľaď Lobariaceae Chevall. (Lichenizované Huby) – história, súčasnosť a trendy výskytu na Solvensku. Acta Rerum Naturalium Musei Nationalis Slovaci 51: 15–29.
Radies, D., Coxson, D., Johnson, C. & Konwicki, K. 2009. Predicting canopy macrolichen diversity and abundance within old-growth inland temperate rainforests. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 86–97.
Ranft, H., Moncada, B., de Lange, P. J., Lumbsch, H. T. & Lücking, R. 2018. The Sticta filix morphodeme (Ascomycota: Lobariaceae) in New Zealand, with the newly recognized species S. dendroides and S. menziesii: indicators of forest health in a threatened island biota? The Lichenologist 50: 185–210.
Rohrer, J., Costello, V., Tanino, J., Bialic-Murphy, L., Akamine, M., Sprague, J., Joe, S. & Smith, C. W. 2016. Development of Tree Snail Protection Enclosures: From Design to Implementation. Technical Report 194. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, University Of Hawai`I At Mānoa, Oahu, Hawaii.
Scheidegger, C., Frey, B. & Zoller, S. 1995. Transplantation of symbiotic propagules and thallus fragments: methods for the conservation of threatened epiphytic lichen populations. Mitteilungen der Eidgenössischen Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft 70: 41–62.
Seaward, M. R. D. & Aptroot, A. 2006. A preliminary checklist of lichens for the Seychelles Group. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 100: 765–781.
Sérusiaux, E. & Lücking, R. 2007. Gallaicolichen, a new genus of foliicolous lichen with unique diaspores. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 95: 509–516.
Simon, A., Goward, T., Di Meglio, J., Dillman, K., Spribille, T. & Goffinet, B. 2018a. Sticta torii sp. nov., a remarkable lichen of high conservation priority from northwestern North America. Graphis Scripta 30: 105–114.
Simon, A., Goffinet, B., Magain, N. & Sérusiaux, E. 2018b. High diversity, high insular endemism and recent origin in the lichen genus Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota, Peltigerales) in Madagascar and the Mascarenes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 122. 15–28.
Sipman, H. J. M. 2006. Diversity and biogeography of lichens in neotropical montane oak forests. Ecological Studies 185: 69–81.
Smith, C. W. 1977. Notes on Hawaiian lichens I. Obligately foliicolous species. The Bryologist 80: 342–343.
Smith, C. W. 1984. Hawaii’s alectorioid lichens. Pacific Science 38: 249–252.
Smith, C. W. 1991. Lichen conservation in Hawaii. In: Galloway, D. J. (ed.), Tropical Lichens: Their Systematics, Conservation, and Ecology, 35–45. The Systematics Association Special Volume, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Smith, C. W. 1993. Notes on Hawaiian parmelioid lichens. The Bryologist 96: 326–332.
Smith, C. W. 1995. Notes on long-distance dispersal in Hawaiian lichens: ascospore characters. Cryptogamic Botany 5: 209–213.
Smith, C. W. 2001. The lichen genus Umbilicaria in the Hawaiian Islands. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 78: 389–394.
Smith, C. W. 2002. Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii. Biological Control of Invasive Plants in Native Hawaiian Ecosystems. Technical Report 129: 91–102.
Smith, C. W. 2013. Checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Hawaii (USA). http://www.biologie.uni-hambur....
Smith, C. W., Gardner, D. E. & Hoe, W. J. 1997. Foliicolous Hawaiian cryptogams. Abstracta Botanica 21(1): 163–167.
Stamatakis, A. 2014. RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30: 1312–1313.
Stenroos, S. & Smith, C. W. 1993. Notes on the amphipacific relations of Hawaiian Cladoniaceae. Tropical Bryology 8: 275–280.
Stevens, G. N. 1991. The tropical Pacific species of Usnea and Ramalina and their relationship to species in other parts of the world. In: Galloway, D. J. (ed.), Tropical Lichens: Their Systematics, Conservation, and Ecology, pp. 47–67. The Systematics Association Special Volume, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Swinscow, T. D. V. & Krog, H. 1988. Macrolichens of East Africa. British Museum (Natural History), London.
Tibell, L. B. 1994. Distribution patterns and dispersal strategies of Caliciales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 116: 159–202.
Tuckerman, E. 1866. Enumeration of Hawaiian Plants: Lichens. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 7: 223–234.
Tunison, J. T., Smith, C. W. & Stone, C. P. 1992. Alien plant management in Hawai’i: conclusions. In: Stone, C. P, Smith, C. W. & Tunison, J. T. (eds), Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: management and research, pp. 821–833. University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, Honolulu.
Van den Boom, P. P., Brand, M., Ertz, D., Kalb, K., Magain, N., Masson, D., Schiefelbein, U., Sipman, H. J. M. & Sérusiaux, E. 2011. Discovering the lichen diversity of a remote tropical island: working list of species collected on Reunion (Mascarene archipelago, Indian Ocean). Herzogia 24: 325–350.
Vondrák, J., Říha, P., Arup, U. & Søchting, U. 2009. The taxonomy of the Caloplaca citrina group (Teloschistaceae) in the Black Sea region, with contributions to the cryptic species concept in lichenology. The Lichenologist 41: 571–604.
Wagner, W. L. & Funk, V. A. (eds) 1995. Hawaiian Biogeography: Evolution on a Hot Spot Archipelago. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC.
Wagner, W. L. & Herbst, D. R. 2002. Electronic Supplement to the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i. http://rathbun.si.edu/botany/p....
Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R. & Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai’i: Revised Edition. Volume 1 and 2. University of Hawai’i Press & Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.
Werth, S. 2011. Biogeography and phylogeography of lichen fungi and their photobionts. In: Fontaneto, D. (ed.), Biogeography of Microscopic Organisms: Is Everything Small Everywhere?, pp. 191–208. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
White, T. J., Bruns, T. D., Lee, S. & Taylor, J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis, M. A., Gelfand, D. H., Sninsky, J. J. & White, T. J. (eds), PCR Protocols, pp. 315–322. Academic Press, San Diego.
Widhelm, T. J., Bertoletti, F. R., Asztalos, M. J., Mercado-Díaz, J. A., Huang, J.-P., Moncada, B., Lücking, R., Magain, N., Sérusiaux, E. & Goffinet, B. 2018. Oligocene origin and drivers of diversification in the genus Sticta (Lobariaceae, Ascomycota). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 126: 58–73.
Wirth, V. 1995. Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 & 2. Ulmer, Stuttgart.
Wirth, V. 1997. Additional lichen records from Oceania 3. Trapeliopsis flexuosa. Australasian Lichenological Newsletter 40: 11.
Wright, S. D., Yong, C. G., Wichman, S. R., Dawson, J. W. & Gardner, R. C. 2001. Stepping stones to Hawaii: a trans-equatorial dispersal pathway for Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) inferred from nrDNA (ITS+ETS). Journal of Biogeography 28: 769–774.
Yoshimura, I. 1984. Taxonomic studies on Lobaria crenulata and its allies. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 57: 97–126.
Yoshimura, I. 1998. Lobaria in Latin America: taxonomic, geographic and evolutionary aspects. In: Marcelli, M. P. & Seaward, M. R. D. (eds), Lichenology in Latin America: History, Current Knowledge and Applications, pp. 129–134. CETESB – Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, São Paulo.
Yoshimura, I. & Arvidsson, L. 1994. Taxonomy and chemistry of the Lobaria crenulata group in Ecuador. Acta Botanica Fennica 150: 223–333.
Zahlbruckner, A. 1903. Neue Flechten. Annales Mycologici 1: 354–361.
Zahlbruckner, A. 1925. Catalogus Lichenum Universalis. Volume 3. Borntraeger, Leipzig.
Zoller, S., Scheidegger, C. & Sperisen, C. 1999. PCR primers for the amplification of mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA of lichen-forming ascomycetes. The Lichenologist 31: 511–516.
Zotz, G., Büdel, B., Meyer, A., Zellner, H. & Lange, O. L. 1998. In situ studies of water relations and CO2 exchange of the tropical macrolichen, Sticta tomentosa. New Phytologist 139: 525–535.
A taxonomic reassessment of the genus Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae) in the Hawaiian archipelago
Bibiana Moncada, Clifford Smith, Robert Lücking
The Lichenologist
Two new common, previously unrecognized species in the Sticta weigelii morphodeme (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae)
Bibiana Moncada, Joel Mercado-Díaz, Clifford Smith, Frank Bungartz, Emmanuël Sérusiaux, H. Lumbsch, Robert Lücking
Unambiguous identification of fungi: where do we stand and how accurate and precise is fungal DNA barcoding?
Robert Lücking, M. Aime, Barbara Robbertse, Andrew Miller, Hiran Ariyawansa, Takayuki Aoki, Gianluigi Cardinali, Pedro Crous, Irina Druzhinina, David Geiser, David Hawksworth, Kevin Hyde, Laszlo Irinyi, Rajesh Jeewon, Peter Johnston, Paul Kirk, Elaine Malosso, Tom May, Wieland Meyer, Maarja Öpik, Vincent Robert, Marc Stadler, Marco Thines, Duong Vu, Andrey Yurkov, Ning Zhang, Conrad Schoch
IMA Fungus
Elucidating species richness in lichen fungi: The genusSticta(Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae) in Puerto Rico
Joel Mercado‐Díaz, Robert Lücking, Bibiana Moncada, Todd Widhelm, H. Lumbsch
Species in lichen-forming fungi: balancing between conceptual and practical considerations, and between phenotype and phylogenomics
Robert Lücking, Steven Leavitt, David Hawksworth
Fungal Diversity
Two new species of Sticta (Peltigeraceae subfam. Lobarioideae) from the Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian savanna)
Jean-Marc Torres, Thiago Barbosa, Marcos Kitaura, Adriano Spielmann, Aline Lorenz
The Bryologist
Phylogenetic Studies and Metabolite Analysis of Sticta Species from Colombia and Chile by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution-Q-Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry
Laura Albornoz, Alfredo Torres-Benítez, Miguel Moreno-Palacios, Mario Simirgiotis, Saúl Montoya-Serrano, Beatriz Sepulveda, Elena Stashenko, Olimpo García-Beltrán, Carlos Areche
New species of Sticta (lichenised Ascomycota, lobarioid Peltigeraceae) from Bolivia suggest a high level of endemism in the Central Andes
Emilia Ossowska, Bibiana Moncada, Martin Kukwa, Adam Flakus, Pamela Rodriguez-Flakus, Sandra Olszewska, Robert Lücking
Two taxa of the genus Sticta (Peltigerales, Ascomycota), S. andina and S. scabrosa subsp. scabrosa, new to Bolivia confirmed by molecular data
Emilia Ossowska, Magdalena Kosecka, Julia Jaskólska, Martin Kukwa
Plant and Fungal Systematics
The Lichen Genus Sticta (Lobariaceae, Peltigerales) in East African Montane Ecosystems
Ulla Kaasalainen, Paul Kirika, Neduvoto Mollel, Andreas Hemp, Jouko Rikkinen
Journal of Fungi
Two new species of Astrothelium from Sud Yungas in Bolivia and the first discovery of vegetative propagules in the family Trypetheliaceae (lichen-forming Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota)
Martin Kukwa, Pamela Rodriguez-Flakus, André Aptroot, Adam Flakus
Species assemblages of insular Caribbean Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota: Peltigerales) over ecological and evolutionary time scales
Joel Mercado-Díaz, Robert Lücking, Bibiana Moncada, E. St., Cesar Delnatte, Lemuel Familia, Banessa Falcón-Hidalgo, Angel Motito-Marín, Yoira Rivera-Queralta, Todd Widhelm, Lumbsch Thorsten
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top